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Saturday, December 10, 2011

The Real History of
Andres Bonifacio’s Death

Andres Bonifacio was the disciplined revolutionary activist who sought and found in revolution, the only process that could give full expression to the national and social aspirations of our people which had so long been suppressed by a foreign power prettified by the soft and evasive terms of liberal reformers. Andres Bonifacio was the uncompromising leader who was not only inspired by the cogitations and formulations of the Propaganda Movement, but was also ready to act in concert with his people in armed struggle against tyranny the moment peaceful and legal struggle reached the white wall of futility. Thus, Andres Bonifacio today stands as a model of revolutionary militancy among the Filipino youth and among the advocates of national democracy. His revolutionary courage is a beacon to us all. To recall the memory of Andres Bonifacio we should particularly understand what the continuing historical relevance we adapted before from Philippine books about history that could be fruad to our present situation today therefore we should tackle the chronicle of reality of the death of Andres Bonifacio posses.
It all begun with the act of struggle for national democracy against the cruel and oppressive dictator of Spanish government on our fellow countrymen before which led Andres Bonifacio to create a secret society called Katipunan which immediately initiated to promote revolution and support Filipino peasants in their difficult daily lives. With the founder of Katipunan forged elite signatures on the Katipunan membership rolls and secretly passed the document to the colonial police, the police reacted to Bonifacio's ruse by arresting and executing Filipino elites, the newly persecuted elite had no choice but to support the coming revolt.

Open revolt erupted in Manila in August 1896, but the harsh conditions which fueled revolt there were present all over the Philippines. In Manila, the Filipino peasants rallied to Bonifacio who redirected peasant rebellious energies away from the local elite and toward Spanish colonial rule. The rebels won early military victories under the command of Bonifacio's brilliant subordinate, Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy. Aguinaldo's success created a power struggle between him and Bonifacio. When Filipino officers voted to abolish the Katipunan and establish Aguinaldo as the president of a new republic, Bonifacio established a rival regime. In a series of events not completely understood even today, Aguinaldo's men killed Bonifacio, thereby weakening cohesive peasant support for the revolution.

But first of all why do Aguinaldo’s men killed Bonifacio in the first place, these conspiracy was planned by General Emilio Aguinaldo itself to provoked Bonifacio on his way because he is not eventually disapproved to be a leader by bonifacio and was threatened because of the secret aggrement on Naic by Bonifacio and his collegues namely Artemio Recarte, Pio del Pilar and Severino de las Alas that aggreed on creating their own government having their own army (Araling Panlipunan I., Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas).
Emilio Aguinaldo heard the news on the agreement in Naic and he realizes what will be the effect of this on the revolution so he pledges bonifacio to join him in his government. These was given the order to Col. Agapito Bonzon, to call up Bonifacio but never the less Bonifacio refuses to that so there had been gun shots. Ciriaco was shot and died, Bonifacio was wounded on his neck and his brother Procopio was also wounded. Bonifacio was brought to Naic. With the orders of Emilio Aguinaldo the judgement was governed to General Mariano Noriel so Bonifacio was officially declared guilty and to be executed for death of Bonifacio. This was changed by Aguinaldo to just throw the Brothers Andres and Procopio in a far place so they would not ruin the revolutionary act of the government. But Aguinaldo renewed his orders because of what General Noriel and General Pio del Pilar that the revolution on the side of Bonifacio will still continue. Therefore the original judgement will provoke – execution of death (Araling Panlipunan I., Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas).
By the orders of General Noriel, Colonel Lazaro Macapagal released Bonifacio in his prison on May 10. One letter was given to Macapagal which has the orders to bring the Bonifacio’s in Mount Tala. And have th orders to shot them to death. With that orders Andres and Procopio was shot and putinto grave in a hidden place(Araling Panlipunan I., Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas).

Historians Teodoro A. Agoncillo, in his book History of the Filipino People, and Alfredo B. Saulo, in his biography of Emilio Aguinaldo, never mentioned Ricarte as arguing for the execution of Andres Bonifacio and his brother, Procopio. The two historians agreed that Generals Mariano Noriel and Pio del Pilar, seconded by Clemente Jose Zulueta, Dr. Anastacio Francisco and Gen. Mamerto Natividad, were the ones who made an effort to convince Aguinaldo to withdraw his banishment order, with Agoncillo adding that the Zulueta, Franciso and Natividad hated Bonifacio (The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html).

Saulo was Bonifacio’s trusted friend and right hand man. Ricarte was also one of the 41 men who signed the Naik Military Agreement that pledged to set up an army separate from that of Aguinaldo, and which was used by Aguinaldo to have the Bonifacios convicted of treason (The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html).

But that is not the main reason for this letter. In commemorating the death of the Katipunan founder on May 10, 1897, Ocampo resurrected an eyewitness account by Lazaro Makapagal, who commanded the four man team that executed the Bonifacios in Maragondon, Cavite. The account, published by the Free Press in 1928, more than 30 years after the event, stated that Andres begged for his life, telling Makapagal, Patawarin ninyo ako kapatid (Forgive me, brother). A year later, according to Ocampo, Makapagal wrote that Andres also begged for his life on his knees. Makapagal, being the only survivor among the five executioners of Andres, was the only eyewitness who could give an account of how the brothers died. Makapagal, however, need not be believed. He claimed that Andres died begging for his life. But if Bonifacio really begged on his knees, why didn’t Makapagal mention this in his first account, which was already quite detailed (The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html).

 Bonifacio lived a life of indubitable courage. He joined the La Liga Filipina led by Jose Rizal, organized the Katipunan after Rizal’s exile, and secretly nourished and expanded the Katipunan for four years. Every moment during those years, his life was in extreme danger and he risked torture. Then he led the Philippine Revolution’s first attack against Spain. Up to the very end, he stuck to his principle of unyielding opposition to Spanish rule(The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html).

There is a continuing conspiracy to malign our two foremost nationalist heroes, Jose Rizal and Andres Bonifacio. To defame Rizal, the conspirators try to make it appear that he retracted his writings against the Church and the Spanish regime; they even forged a retraction supposedly signed by him. As for Bonifacio, they try to make him look like a coward, when the way he lived his entire life argues against it (The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html).

Another conspiracy is the 1896 revolution against Spain had not been a sterling campaign at the Tejeros convention, members of the Magdaló faction of the Katipunan had conspired against the well-meaning and perhaps naive Andres Bonifacio to get General Emilio Aguinaldo elected President of the revolutionary government to add insult to injury, the Supremo’s fitness to be Secretary of the Interior had been questioned due to his lack of education and he and his brother had subsequently been arrested and executed for treason and sedition on orders of the General for his part, Aguinaldo had proved to be a leader who valued loyalty more than competence, which demoralized his officer corps and caused indiscipline among the ranks. In the meantime, the Spanish forces, reinforced by matériel and personnel from the home country, had rallied to drive the Filipino militia out of Cavite. And so the revolution had ended in an uneasy peace with the signing of the Pact of Biak na Bato (Some Perspectives from Growth Economics Michael M. Alba).

Araling Panlipunan I., Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas
Some Perspectives from Growth Economics Michael M. Alba
The conspiracy against two nationalist heroes, http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.filipino/2009−06/msg00005.html

Eric Jeffrey Arriola

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