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Saturday, January 7, 2012

How does the Search engine of GOOGLE works?



Google runs on a distributed network of thousands of low-cost computers and can therefore carry out fast parallel processing. This parallel processing has a method of computation in which many calculations can be performed simultaneously, significantly speeding up data processing. Pero the important knowledge we should know about how the google search engine works is yung algorithm na they used for its system which is called “Pagerank Algorithm”, this is the software behind the google search technology that conducts a series of simultaneous calculations na nag re-require lang ng halos a fraction of a second for the process nito. The traditional search engines is nag re-rely lamang on how often a word appears on a web page. Trough the use of the Pagerank algorithm, it examine the entire link structure of the web and determines which pages are most important. It then conducts hypertext-matching analysis to determine which pages are relevant to the specific search being conducted. By combining overall importance and query-specific relevance, it ables to put the most relevant and reliable results first(The Google search Engine and Google Graphic).
The factual information about Pagerank algorithm is that it helps rank web pages that match a given search string. The PageRank algorithm instead analyzes human-generated links assuming that web pages linked from many important pages are themselves likely to be important. The algorithm computes a recursive score for pages, based on the weighted sum of the PageRanks of the pages linking to them. PageRank is thought to correlate well with human concepts of importance. A Web page's PageRank depends on a few factors; one is the frequency and location of keywords within the Web page which the keyword only appears once within the body of a page, it will receive a low score for that keyword. The second is how long the Web page has existed, that determines people create new Web pages every day, and not all of them stick around for long. Google places more value on pages with an established history. The last would be the number of other Web pages that link to the page in question which google looks at how many Web pages link to a particular site to determine its relevance(CyberAge Books 2001).
The process of google search engine has three distinct parts, namely the googlebot it is a web crawler that finds and fetches web pages, the second is the indexer that sorts every word on every page and stores the resulting index of words in a huge database. The last is the query processor, which compares your search query to the index and recommends the documents that it considers most relevant(CyberAge Books 2001).

Googlebot, Google’s Web Crawler
Googlebot is Google’s web crawling robot, which finds and retrieves pages on the web and hands them off to the Google indexer. It’s easy to imagine Googlebot as a little spider scurrying across the strands of cyberspace, but in reality Googlebot doesn’t traverse the web at all. It functions much like your web browser, by sending a request to a web server for a web page, downloading the entire page, then handing it off to Google’s indexer. Googlebot consists of many computers requesting and fetching pages much more quickly than you can with your web browser. In fact, Googlebot can request thousands of different pages simultaneously. To avoid overwhelming web servers, or crowding out requests from human users, Googlebot deliberately makes requests of each individual web server more slowly than it’s capable of doing. Googlebot finds pages in two ways: through an add URL form and through finding links by crawling the web(Copyright © 2003 Google Inc.).
When Googlebot fetches a page and yung lahat ng links appearing on it and adds them to a queue for subsequent crawling. The googlebot tends to encounter little spam because most web authors link only to what they believe are high-quality pages. By harvesting links from every page it encounters, Googlebot can quickly build a list of links that can cover broad reaches of the web. This technique, known as deep crawling, also allows Googlebot to probe deep within individual sites. Because of their massive scale, deep crawls can reach almost every page in the web. Because the web is vast, this can take some time, so some pages may be crawled only once a month. Although its function is simple, Googlebot must be programmed to handle several challenges. First, since Googlebot sends out simultaneous requests for thousands of pages, the queue of “visit soon” URLs must be constantly examined and compared with URLs already in Google’s index. Duplicates in the queue must be eliminated to prevent Googlebot from fetching the same page again. Googlebot must determine how often to revisit a page. On the one hand, it’s a waste of resources to re-index an unchanged page. On the other hand, Google wants to re-index changed pages to deliver up-to-date results (Copyright © 2003 Google Inc.).
Google’s Indexer
            The Googlebot gives the indexer the full text of the pages it finds. These pages are stored in Google’s index database. This index is sorted alphabetically by search term, with each index entry storing a list of documents in which the term appears and the location within the text where it occurs. This data structure allows rapid access to documents that contain user query terms. To improve search performance, Google ignores common words called stop words such as the, is, on, or, of, how, why, as well as certain single digits and single letters. Stop words are so common that they do little to narrow a search, and therefore they can safely be discarded. The indexer also ignores some punctuation and multiple spaces, as well as converting all letters to lowercase, to improve Google’s performance (Copyright © 2003 Google Inc.).
Google’s Query Processor
The query processor has several parts, including the user interface which is the search box, then the engine that evaluates queries and matches them to relevant documents, at yung results formatter. PageRank is Google’s system for ranking web pages. A page with a higher PageRank is search first and ito yung more important and is more likely to be listed above a page with a lower PageRank. Google considers over a hundred factors in computing a PageRank and determining kung anong documents are most relevant to a query, including the popularity of the page, the position and size of the search terms within the page, and the proximity of the search terms to one another on the page. Google also applies machine-learning techniques to improve its performance automatically by learning relationships and associations within the stored data. For example, the spelling-correcting system uses such techniques to figure out likely alternative spellings. Google closely guards the formulas it uses to calculate relevance; they’re tweaked to improve quality and performance, and to outwit the latest devious techniques used by spammers. Indexing the full text of the web allows Google to go beyond simply matching single search terms. Google gives more priority to pages that have search terms near each other and in the same order as the query. Google can also match multi-word phrases and sentences. Since Google indexes HTML code in addition to the text on the page, users can restrict searches on the basis of where query words appear, in the title, in the URL, in the body, and in links to the page, options offered by Google’s Advanced Search Form and Using Search Operators “Advanced Operators(Copyright © 2003 Google Inc.).


And lahat ng ito is done in less than a second, 300 million times a day generating over $20 billion a year for google so they earn many money talaga.

Eric Jeffrey Arriola
200911820

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